There are numerous inherent limitations of real-time pcr (RT-PCR), which is the mainstay of viral diagnostics, that limit PCR’s applicability to the acute period of infection, an effective countermeasure against SARS Coronavirus 2 will require the use of antigen and antibody immunoassays.
In a nutshell, here’s what Viral Diagnostics Means
Both polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and immunoassays are frequently used to determine whether or not an individual has a virus.
And how is this taken for testing?
A virus RNA / DNA sample is taken from the patient by a swab or blood drawn and sent to a laboratory for examination using the pcr method (PCR).
RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 require an additional step prior to the polymerase chain reaction, in which a nucleoside enzyme is required to build a complementary DNA non-coding strand from RNA, thus the name Reverse Transcription-PCR.
A thermostable polymerase enzyme recognizes and binds the double-stranded portion of DNA, which functions as a molecular photocopy, to stretch the sequence and generate a full complementary strand of DNA, signaling the start of PCR reaction.
This can be verified by introducing additional DNA probes that provide a measurable signal to identify which microbe is accountable for the illness.
Immunoassays, what is it?
There are many different types of immunoassays, but all of them are based on an immunogen that has been incapacitated on a surface that is usually on paper, and that is capable of binding disease antibodies as well as the antibodies from the patient’s serum and this is the most common type of immunoassay, and it is the most widely used by licensed clinical diagnostic laboratories.
With the addition of a second type of reporter protein, it now becomes possible to detect a virus-specific immune response in a patient with antigenski test, which can be used to establish the presence of a present or past viral disease in that same patient.
Testing for COVID-19 using PCR
People with COVID-19 can have no symptoms, a slight cough, fever, or severe pneumonia & respiratory failure, furthermore, COVID-19 symptoms are often similar to other co-circulating respiratory illnesses with further complicating issues.
Testing at the Point of Care
However, antigenski test detection is expected to start at the time of symptoms for active COVID-19 infections, and patients with a suspicion of sickness may soon be able to use immediate point-of-care or PoC antigen screening and rapid results with being of help for individuals and for their loved ones as well.
In the circumstance of a pandemic, medical institutions, as well as public health authorities, would have an edge as they would be able to quickly diagnose the disease in their jurisdictions.
The need for point of care testing will increase if authorities have been able to restrict transmission and COVID-19 instances have begun to decline.
Conclusion We have discussed the importance of PCR testing and Antibody test kits as well, but what we all must be cautious about is the way we take precautions on not being infected by the virus, be mindful always of your surroundings, stay at home if there is no necessity to go out, wash your hands frequently as possible, wear your preventive measures when you are outside.